Compromiso mundial para reducir los plásticos de un solo uso

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UNEP/Shawn Heinrichs
Basura recolectada en una playa de Bali, Indonesia

Cada minuto se compran un millón de botellas de plástico y, al año, se usan 500.000 millones de bolsas. Ocho millones de toneladas acaban en los océanos cada año, amenazando la vida marina. La asamblea medioambiental de la ONU ha terminado con una declaración en la que más de 200 países se comprometen a reducir el uso de plásticos de aquí a 2030.

La cuarta Asamblea de las Naciones Unidas para el Medio Ambiente, que se clausura este viernes en Nairobi, ha logrado un acuerdo global para reducir el consumo de plásticos de un solo uso.

Tras cinco días de debates en la capital de Kenya, los ministros presentes en la conferencia han consensuado una declaración, aunque algunos países esperaban compromisos más ambiciosos.

 “Abordaremos el daño a nuestros ecosistemas causado por el uso y la eliminación insostenibles de los productos plásticos, incluso mediante la reducción significativa de los productos plásticos de un solo uso para el año 2030, y trabajaremos con el sector privado para encontrar productos asequibles y respetuosos con el medio ambiente”, dice la declaración ministerial acordada al final de la cumbre..

Los países también “trabajarán con el sector privado para encontrar alternativas asequibles y respetuosas con el medio ambiente”, añade.

Varios países apoyaban medidas más ambiciosas, sugeridas por India, para que los Gobiernos se comprometieran a la “eliminación progresiva de los productos de plástico de un solo uso para 2025”. Según informaciones de prensa, algunos países como Estados Unidos, Arabia Saudita y Cuba se opusieron y finalmente solo se incluyó una “reducción significativa” en 2030. 

 De acuerdo con las estimaciones de la ONU, cada minuto se compran un millón de botellas de plástico y, al año, se usan 500.000 millones de bolsas. Casi una tercera parte de todos los envases de plástico salen de los sistemas de alcantarillado y ocho millones de toneladas acaban en los océanos cada año, amenazando a la vida marina.  

Transformación de nuestra forma de vida

Los delegados también se comprometieron a promover sistemas alimentarios sostenibles mediante el fomento de prácticas agrícolas resilientes, combatir la pobreza a través de la gestión sostenible de los recursos naturales y promover el uso y el intercambio de datos ambientales.

“El mundo está en una encrucijada, pero hoy hemos elegido el camino a seguir”, dijo Siim Kiisler, presidente de la Asamblea y ministro de Medio Ambiente de Estonia. “Hemos decidido hacer las cosas de manera diferente. Transformaremos la forma en que vivimos, desde la reducción de nuestra dependencia de los plásticos de un solo uso hasta la ubicación de la sostenibilidad en el corazón de todo desarrollo futuro. Tenemos las soluciones innovadoras que necesitamos. Ahora debemos adoptar las políticas que nos permitan implementarlas”.

Además, los casi 200 ministros adoptaron una serie de resoluciones no vinculantes, que van desde reducir el desperdicio de alimentos y la gestión racional de la basura a desarrollar tecnologías innovadoras y consultar a los pueblos indígenas para las políticas de desarrollo.

En las resoluciones se reconoce que una economía global más circular, en la que los bienes pueden reutilizarse o destinarse para otros fines, puede contribuir significativamente al consumo y la producción sostenibles.

Nuestro planeta ha alcanzado sus límites y tenemos que actuar ahora. Nos complace que el mundo haya respondido aquí en Nairobi con el firme compromiso de construir un futuro en el que la sostenibilidad sea el principal objetivo de todo lo que hacemos”, dijo la directora ejecutiva interina de ONU Medio Ambiente, Joyce Msuya.”Si los países cumplen todo lo acordado aquí e implementan las resoluciones, podríamos dar un gran paso hacia un nuevo sistema mundial en el que ya no crezcamos a expensas de la naturaleza sino que veamos a las personas y al planeta prosperar juntos”, añadió.

Durante la Asamblea, Antigua y Barbuda, Paraguay y Trinidad y Tobago se unieron a la campaña Mares Limpios de ONU Medio Ambiente, la mayor alianza del mundo para combatir la basura marina plástica y que ahora cuenta con 60 países, incluidos 20 en América Latina y el Caribe.

Durante la cumbre también se presentaron una serie de informes que evidencian la necesidad de actuar con rapidez para hacer frente a los desafíos ambientales.

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