La temperatura del Ártico subirá 5 grados hasta 2050

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La temperatura del Ártico sufrirá un aumento de entre 3 y 5 grados centígrados hasta 2050, una situación que “devastará” la región y elevará el nivel de los océanos en todo el mundo, según un informe presentado por ONU Medio Ambiente en Nairobi.

Deshielo en el Ártico
“La idea es subrayar las relaciones entre el Ártico y sus conexiones globales y lograr soluciones que puedan ayudar también al resto del mundo”, dijo Bjorn Alfthan, portavoz de la fundación noruega GRID-Arendal, coautora del texto, durante su presentación en el marco de la IV Asamblea de Medio Ambiente de la ONU (UNEA-4).

Con el título “Enlaces globales: Una mirada gráfica al cambio del Ártico”, el texto revela que el deshielo podría despertar al “gigante dormido” que supone esta región y causar más gases de efecto invernadero, así como un incremento en la acidificación y polución de los océanos.

La investigación, dividida en tres partes -cambio climático, polución y biodiversidad-, estuvo liderada por la investigadora Tina Schoolmeester, coordinadora de Asuntos Polares de GRID-Arendal, y se basa en un estudio del Consejo Ártico, pendiente todavía de publicación.

El Ártico alberga a más de cuatro millones de habitantes, de los cuales aproximadamente el 10 % son indígenas y se dedican, en su mayoría, a labores como la minería, la pesca y la industria maderera.

Uno de los principales problemas a los que ahora se enfrenta la región es el deshielo del permafrost, terrenos que permanecen congelados durante más de dos años en altas latitudes, y que ahora se están rompiendo, lo que produce la liberación del carbón almacenado en estos suelos.

Plásticos
La contaminación de plásticos, que según ONU Medio Ambiente, “no entiende de fronteras”, también afecta al Ártico, ya que, según explicó Alfthan, es “un problema global”.

El investigador español de GRID-Arendal Joan Fabres dijo en una entrevista con EFE que esta fue una de las conclusiones que más le sorprendió del informe, el hecho de que “la polución por plástico afecta a cada rincón del planeta”.

Fabres destacó también los intereses geoestratégicos que está generando esta zona por parte de países como China o Corea, ya sea por la explotación de recursos naturales o por el entendimiento del efecto que tiene sobre los problemas medioambientales en otras partes del planeta.

“Una aproximación apropiada a esta cuestión es la del Consejo Ártico, que propone programas de acción regionales, que se complementan con las iniciativas de cada país”, apuntó el investigador.

Se estima que desde 1979, el hielo marino del Ártico ha disminuido en un 40% y, según expertos, si prosiguen las emisiones de CO2 actuales, los veranos del Ártico estarán libres de hielo antes de la década de 2030.

Creado en 1996, el Consejo Ártico es un foro intergubernamental que aborda asuntos que afectan a los países árticos y los pueblos indígenas de la zona.

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