El cambio climático, un “problema serio” para el 68 % de ciudadanos iberoamericanos

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Bajo nivel del agua en una presa de Bolivia afectada por el cambio climático. EFE/ Martín Alipaz

El 72 por ciento de los ciudadanos procedentes de países iberoamericanos reconoce la existencia del cambio climático y un 68 por ciento lo considera un problema “serio”, según se recoge en el informe “Cambio Climático y Desarrollo Sostenible en Iberoamérica”.

El estudio, elaborado por el Observatorio Iberoamericano de Cambio Climático y Desarrollo Sostenible de La Rábida (Huelva), ha sido presentado este jueves en Madrid durante jornada sobre Desarrollo Sostenible y Cambio Climático.

La investigación muestra importantes variaciones en la sensibilización de los países respecto al cambio climático, que van desde el 50 por ciento en la República Dominicana hasta el 90 por ciento en Portugal.

Aunque el nivel educativo constituye la principal forma de medir la sensibilización global sobre el deterioro del medio ambiente, existen “diferencias regionales y nacionales”, apunta el informe.

En concreto, comprender su causa antropogénica es el elemento “más influyente” en la percepción del riesgo en América Latina o Europa.
Sin embargo, la apreciación del cambio en la temperatura local constituye el componente “más fuerte” en muchos países africanos o asiáticos.

Según el estudio, será “importante” que los gobiernos trabajen a nivel nacional para “entender mejor” cuáles son las “vías específicas” por las que se puede aumentar entre sus ciudadanos la sensibilización sobre este problema.

Responsabilidad

En cuanto a la responsabilidad de esta situación en el planeta, para el 83 por ciento de los latinoamericanos recae en el ser humano, una cifra que alcanza el 93 por ciento en Costa Rica y un 73 por ciento en República Dominicana.

Además, del informe se desprende que el 71 por ciento de los habitantes latinoamericanos creen que hay que dar prioridad a la lucha contra el calentamiento global, “sin importar sus consecuencias negativas en el crecimiento económico”.

Por ejemplo, países como Colombia o República Dominicana apoyan la lucha contra el cambio climático con un 85 y 60 por ciento respectivamente, y sólo un 20 por ciento de la región latinoamericana considera prioritario el crecimiento económico.

Actuación

El informe “Cambio Climático y Desarrollo Sostenible en Iberoamérica” pone de manifiesto que la inactividad respecto al calentamiento global constituye uno de los principales “riesgos económicos”, mientras que la actuación conlleva “importantes oportunidades económicas”.

La investigación también menciona el caso de Estados Unidos, donde la población latina se sitúa a más de veinte puntos por delante de la no latina en cuanto a la preocupación climática, es decir, un 78 por ciento frente a un 56 por ciento.

En la Unión Europea, el 92 por ciento de los habitantes sitúa el cambio climático como “un problema grave” y un 74 por ciento “muy grave”. Países como España o Portugal creen que se trata del segundo mayor problema al que se enfrenta el mundo en su conjunto, sólo por detrás de la pobreza, el hambre y la falta de acceso al agua.

En concreto, ambos Estados otorgan al cambio climático una gravedad de 8,2 (España) y de 8 (Portugal) en una escala del 1 al 10.
Una de las áreas donde más se investiga, señala el informe, se centra en la percepción de la ciudadanía sobre el deterioro climático respecto a otros problemas de seguridad mundial.

Principal problema

Países como España, Brasil, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, México y Perú han identificado el cambio climático como el “principal problema” para la seguridad mundial.

En el caso de Venezuela, éste se sitúa en segundo lugar por detrás de la situación económica global.

España encabeza el ránking global con un 89 por ciento de ciudadanos que reconocen el cambio climático como la “mayor amenaza global”, seguida por Chile con un 86 por ciento y Perú con un 79 por ciento.

Respecto a la sensibilización, la investigación concluye que los estudios realizados a nivel global o regional demuestran una “mayor concienciación climática” entre los países que conforman Iberoamérica.

Variación entre países

Sin embargo, los estudios también demuestran la variación entre países, como el caso de la República Dominicana, donde el nivel de sensibilización es aun “considerablemente mejorable”.

Durante la presentación del estudio han estado presentes la ministra para la Transición Ecológica, Teresa Ribera, y la secretaria general iberoamericana, Rebeca Grynspan.

“Aunque no nos podemos quedar en los informes, los necesitamos para entender el mundo que tenemos que cambiar”, ha subrayado la ministra Ribera, quien pide dar ejemplos de “experiencias positivas” para inspirar la “voluntad de cambio” en la ciudadanía. EFEverde

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